Joseph Hansen : Malcolm X martyr de la liberté

Articles parus dans L’Internationale, n° 31, mars 1965, p. 7

African-American Muslim minister and civil rights activist Malcolm X (1925 – 1965) on Marshall Street in Smethwick, near Birmingham, 12th February 1965. The local Conservative council is attempting to buy houses on the street for resale to white people only. (Photo by Daily Express/Archive Photos/Getty Images)

L’ASSASSINAT DE MALCOLM X est un coup sévère à la lutte pour la liberté aux USA et, avec elle, à la lutte pour le Socialisme dans le monde.


Paul Gilroy : Black Fascism

Article de Paul Gilroy paru dans Transition, No. 81/82 (2000), p. 70-91

Minister Louis Farrakan of the Nation of Islam addresses a crowd at Madison Square Garden. (Photo by Jacques M. Chenet/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images)

In 1938 C. L. R. James wrote that « all the things that Hitler was to do so well later, Marcus Garvey was doing in 1920 and 1921. He organized storm troopers, who marched, uniformed, in his parades, and kept order and gave colour to his meetings. » James later abandoned this prewar analysis, but his words evoke controversial questions about Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). Did Garvey’s ideology of race consciousness incline him toward fascism ? Or was his sympathy for European dictators grounded in their practical achievements, as with his enthusiasm for Napoleon ? More important, was Garvey’s militaristic leadership kindred to the techniques of rule fascists developed in Italy and Germany ?